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The International Code of Signals were first published in 1931 and have been used every since. Each flag has a specific meaning, and by flying a sequence of flags together, you can send a very specific message. These flags are a great means of communication when the sender and receiver don’t speak the same language.
A Alpha - I have a diver down; keep clear and pass at low speed.
B Bravo - I am loading, unloading or carrying dangerous goods.
C Charlie - Yes (confirming a preceding signal).
D Delta - Keep clear, I am maneuvering with difficulty.
E Echo - I am altering course to starboard.
F Foxtrot - I am disabled, communicate with me.
G Golf - I require a pilot. On a fishing vessel: I am hauling in nets.
H Hotel - I have a pilot on board.
I India - I am altering course to port.
J Juliet - I am on fire and have dangerous cargo on board; keep clear.
K Kilo - I wish to communicate with you.
L Lima- You should stop your vessel immediately.
M Mike- My vessel is stopped and making no way through the water.
N November - No or negative (in response to a preceding signal).
O Oscar - Man overboard.
P Papa - I am about to put to sea.
Q Quebec - My vessel is healthy and I request clearance to come into port.
R Romeo - Single letter code R has no allocated meaning.
S Sierra - I am moving astern under power.
T Tango - Keep clear, I am engaged in trawling.
U Uniform - You are running into danger.
V Victor - I require assistance.
W Whisky - I require medical assistance.
X X-ray - Stop carrying out your intentions and watch for my signals.
Y Yankee - I am dragging my anchor.
Z Zulu - O require a tug. On a fishing vessel: I am laying nets.
AP/CF - Answering Pennant/Code Flag. Flown to the end or acknowledge a message and/or show that the international code flags are being used.
0 to 9 - Pennants indicating numerals.
FS - First substitute (for the first flag in the hoist).
SS - Second substitute (for the second flag in the hoist).
TS - Third substitute (for the third flag in the hoist).